Vitamin A (Retinol)
Vitamin A is naturally found in the skin, predominantly as Retinyl Palmitate and is an essential nutrient. Vitamin A has been proven to normalise DNA, prevents and reverses ageing from the sun, improves hydration, regulates oil and increases cell turnover.
Higher concentrations of Vitamin A derivatives need to be slowly worked up to through a step-by-step skincare program to prevent irritation and allow the skin to adjust.
AHAs (Alpha-Hydroxy Acids)
AHAs promote exfoliation and work well as a vehicle for other active ingredients such as Vitamin A. Glycolic acid, derived from sugar cane, has been shown to improve fine lines, pigmentation, enlarged pores, and acne to reveal healthier, younger-looking skin.
Lactic acid is a true moisturiser capable of making Hyaluronic Acid (HA) which binds 1000s of times its own molecular weight in water!
Barrier-enhancing Vitamin B3 (niacinamide) and Pro-B5 (panthenol) stimulate cell turnover and act as antioxidants and anti-inflammatories.
Vitamin EThis binds free radicals and prevents their destructive action in lipids, cells, and cell membranes. Vitamin E promotes the biological stability of the cells, and smoothes and strengthens the skin while also having reparative qualities.
Hyaluronic Acid (HA)A form of Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) that occurs naturally in the body and is part of the body’s connective tissue, acting to hydrate, cushion, and lubricate. Levels of HA deplete with age but are naturally induced by the presence of lactic acid.
Idebenone has been respected for some time as a pharmaceutical agent in the form of a ‘super antioxidant’, and is now an ingredient in high-quality skincare products. Idebenone embeds in the cell and mitochondrial membranes to scavenge (detoxify) free radicals that cause ageing and cellular stress, as well as improving uneven skin colour and hyperpigmentation.
Peptides (“Cell communicators”)
The science behind peptides came from the discover that when collagen is damaged by sunlight it is broken up into peptides. Certain peptides formed were able to act as a signal to skin cells to make new collagen, meaning wrinkled skin could be improved by fooling it into thinking it has been damaged by applying this peptide. Peptide fragments act as a signal for synthesis of new proteins to regenerate new skin.
Resveratrol is an antioxidant produced in the skin of wine grapes and is known to have antifungal, antibacterial and antiviral properties. It is cited as a potent antioxidant, making it an effective free-radical scavenger and tissue repairer. It also lightens skin colour by reducing one’s ability to tan.
Salicylic Acid (Beta hydroxy acid)
Great for acne prone skins, Salicylic acid is from the bark of the Willow tree. This oil-soluable BHA eliminates the bacteria causing acne, dissolves dead skin cells, and reduces oil.